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A Soldier's Morality, Religion, and Our Professional Ethic: Does the Army's Culture Facilitate Integration, Character Development, and Trust in the Profession? - Endnotes
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Article Index
A Soldier's Morality, Religion, and Our Professional Ethic: Does the Army's Culture Facilitate Integration, Character Development, and Trust in the Profession?
Background & Context
Background & Context continued
The Evolving Culture of Hostility toward Religious Presence and Expression
Evolving Culture of Hostility continued
The Army's Professional Ethic
Army's Professional Ethic continued
The Challenge and Opportunities to the Leader of Faith
Challenge & Opportunities continued
Opportunities for Leaders of Religious Faith
Why Not Just Let Soldiers of Religious Faith Leave the Army?
All Pages

1. Todd Starnes, “Exclusive: Army halts training program that labeled Christians as extremists,” Fox News, October 24, 2013, available from
2. Ibid., p. 2.
3. Dena Sher and Gabriel Rottman, “Army Right to Halt ‘Extremist’ Training,” Defense One, available from
4. Patrick J. Sweeney, Sean T. Hannah, and Don M. Snider, “The Domain of the Human Spirit,” Chap. 2, Don M. Snider and Lloyd J. Mathews, eds., Forging the Warrior’s Character: Moral Precepts from the Cadet Prayer, New York: McGraw Hill, 2008,
pp. 28-29.
5. Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 6-22, Army Leadership, Washington, DC: HQ, Department of the Army, p. 6,
paras. 5 and 6.
6. The term “soldiers” will be used to refer to all members of America’s military professions, regardless of Service or rank, uniformed or civilian. Later in the monogaph, a capitalized “Soldiers” will be used to refer to all members of the Army, uniformed or civilian.
7. Department of Defense Instruction (DODI) 1300.17, Washington, DC: DoD, available from
8. Army Regulation (AR) 600-20, Washington, DC: Department of the Army, available from
9. See, Robert Audi, “Liberal Democracy and the Place of Religion in Politics,” Robert Audi and Nicholas Wolterstorff, eds., Religion in the Public Square, Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield, 1997; as well as his more recent book, Religious Commitment and Secular Reason, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Press, 2000.
10. Christopher J. Eberle and Rick Rubel, “Religious Conviction in the Profession of Arms,” Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 171-180, quotation from p. 179.
11. See Forum on Religion and Public Life, “Nones” on the Rise: One-in-five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation, Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, October 9, 2012, available from; and Charles Murray, Coming Apart: the State of White America 1960-2000, New York: Crown Publishing, 2012, particularly Chap. 11.
12. See Family Research Council, “A Clear and Present Danger: The Threat to Religious Liberty in the Military,” Washington, DC (undated report), available from
13. Norton A. Schwartz, “Maintaining Government Neutrality Regarding Religion,” memo published on September 1, 2011, available from; and Markeshia Ricks, “Schwartz: Don’t Endorse Religious Programs,” Air Force Times, September 16, 2011, available from
14. Chief of Staff C. W. Callahan, Commander, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, “Subject: Wounded, Ill, and Injured Partners in Care Guidelines,” Policy Memo 10-015, September 14, 2011, p. 4; “Whoops! Walter Reed Temporarily Bans Bibles,” NBC Washington News, December 19, 2010, available from
Bans-Bibles-135853463.html; and Liz Farmer, “Walter Reed Accidentally Bans Bibles,” Washington Examiner, December 18, 2011, available from
15. See John Brinsfield and Peter A. Batkis, “The Human, Spiritual, and Ethical Dimensions of Leadership in Preparation for Combat,” Chap. 21, Don M. Snider and Lloyd J. Matthews, eds., The Future of the Army Profession, 2d Ed., New York: McGraw Hill, 2005, pp. 463-490.
16. Todd Starnes, “Pentagon: Religious Proselytizing is Not Permitted,” Fox News Radio, April 30, 2013, available from
17. Ken Klukowski, “Amendments Protecting Soldiers’ Religious Rights Approved by Committee,” Breitbart, June 7, 2013, available from; and, Rep. John Fleming and Senator Mike Lee Press Release, “Fleming Applauds Passage of Religious Liberty Amendment in Senate Committee,” June 17, 2013, available from
18. Ken Klukowski, “Breaking: Obama Threatens Veto of Religious Protection for Military,” Breitbart, June 12, 2013,
available from; and, Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, “Statement of Administration Policy: H.R. 1960—National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2014,” Washington, DC: The White House, June 11, 2013, available from
19. Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) No. 1, “The Army Profession,” Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.
20. Ibid., pp. 2-3.
21. Peter L. Jennings and Sean T. Hannah, “The Moralities of Obligation and Aspiration: Towards a Concept of Exemplary Military Ethics and Leadership,” Military Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2011.
22. See ADP 6-22.
23.  Ibid., p. 6, paras. 26 and 27.
24. See Patrick J. Sweeney and Sean T. Hannah, “High-Impact Military Leadership: The Positive Effects of Authentic Moral Leadership on Followers,” Chap. 5 in Snider and Mathews, Forging the Warrior’s Character, pp. 91-116.
25. ADRP1, p. 6-2, para. 6-8.
26. See Paul T. Berghaus, and Nathan L. Cartegena, “Developing Good Soldiers: The Problem of Fragmentation in the Army,” Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 12, No. 4 (forthcoming); and, Paul T. Berghaus, “Developing Virtuous Soldiers: Mitigating the Problem of Fragmentation in the Army,” M.A. thesis submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University, August 2013.
27. Army Regulation (AR) 165-1, Army Chaplain Corps Activities, Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, December 3, 2009, available from; and Todd Starnes, “Army Removes Crosses, Steeple from Chapel,” Fox News Radio, January 24, 2013, available from
28. Lieutenant Colonels Peter Fromm, Douglas Pryor, and Kevin Cutright, “The Myths We Soldiers Tell Ourselves,” Military Review, September-October 2013, pp. 57-68.
29. Army Regulation (AR) 15-6 procedures generally govern investigations requiring detailed fact gathering and analysis and recommendations based on those facts. An “investigation” is simply the process of collecting information for the command, so that the command can make an informed decision. AR 15-6 sets forth procedures for both informal and formal investigations. Informal investigations usually have a single investigating officer who conducts interviews and collects evidence. In contrast, formal investigations normally involve due process hearings for a designated respondent before a board of several officers.
Definition available from
30. Authors’ discussion with an anonymous Army Officer, September 2013.
31. See Mary Tillman and Narda Zacchino, Boots on the Ground by Dusk: My Tribute to Pat Tillman, New York: Rodale Books, 2008.
32. From the Judeo-Christian tradition, consider the 9th Commandment, and the Levitical basis of the West Point Honor Code [Lev. 19:11].
33. The Honorable Charles Johnson and General Carter F. Ham, “Report of the Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with the Repeal of ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’,” Executive Summary, Washington, DC: Department of Defense, November 30, 2010, p. 2, available from
34. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid., p 13.
37. We say “official,” meaning those policies of an ethical nature adopted by the Congress and the Executive under constitutional based processes, such as the repeal of DADT.
38.  ADRP1, p. 2-2, para 2-8; and p. 6-2, paras. 6-5 to 6-8.
39. Ibid., Chap. 2, “Trust—The Bedrock of our Profession”; and James Burk, “Expertise, Jurisdiction, and Legitimacy of the Military Profession,” Chap. 2 in Snider and Mathews, The Future of the Army Profession, pp. 39-60.
40. Jay Allen Sekulow and Robert W. Ash, “Religious Rights and Military Service,” Chap. 6, James E. Parco and David A. Levy, eds., Attitudes Aren’t Free: Thinking Deeply About Diversity in the US Armed Forces, Montgomery, AL: Air University Press, pp. 99-138.
41. For one such effort, see Patrick J. Sweeney, Jeffrey E. Rhodes, and Bruce Boling, “Spiritual Fitness: A Key Component of Total Force Fitness,” Joint Force Quarterly, Issue 66, 3rd Quarter, 2012, pp. 35-41.
42. David E. Fitzkee, “Religious Speech in the Military: Freedoms and Limitations,” Parameters, August 2011, p. 66.
43. Ibid.


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Last Updated on Monday, 17 November 2014 09:22