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Just War Over Cyber Networks - Endnotes
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ENDNOTES

 

1. Hichkad, Ravi R. & Bowie, Christopher J. Secret Weapons & Cyberwar. Armed Forces Journal, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA. June 2012, p.14ff.

2. The five domains of warfare: land, sea, air, space, cyber.

3. Cyber War is inexpensive when compared with development of nuclear weapons, or major conventional weapons systems like aircraft carriers or armor formations.

4. Rustici, Ross M. Cyberweapons: Leveling the International Playing Field. Parameters, Vol. XLI, No. 3, Autumn 2011. U.S. Army War College, 1222 Forbes Ave, Carlisle, PA 17013-5238, p.32.

5. Ibid, Rustici, p.34.

6. Bell, Daniel. The Moral Crisis of Just War: Beyond Deontology toward a Professional Military Ethic. Journal of Faith and War. Summer 2012, www.faithandwar.org, Monday, 02 July 2012 14:37.

7. Ibid, Bell.

8. Niebuhr, Reinhold. "Chapter XIII: The Case Against Pacifism." In Reinhold Niebuhr On Politics: His Political Philosophy and Its Application to Our Age As Expressed In His Writings, edited by Harry R. Davis & Robert C. Good. (New York: Scribner, 1960); p.147.

9. This fallacy is endemic in current American secular society which expects humans to live inclusively and harmoniously out of the goodness of their beings. In essence, it is expecting persons to live out religious virtues without the underpinnings of any sort of faith.

10. A Commander’s principle task in war is to impose his or her will on the enemy.

11. Liaropoulos, Andrew. Cyber-Security and the Law of War: The Legal and Ethical Aspects of Cyber-Conflict, Academia.edu. http://piraeus.academia.edu/AndrewLiaropoulos/Papers/617962/Cyber-Security_and_the_Law_of_War_The_Legal_and_Ethical_Aspects_of_Cyber-conflict, Sept. 26, 2012.

12. Ibid, Liaropoulos.

13. Gorman, Siobhan and Barnes, Julian E. Iran Blamed for Cyberattacks. The Wall Street Journal, NY, NY. Vol. CCLX, No.88, October 13-14, 2012, p. 1.

14. Mark 7:15, New Living Translation.

15. Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War. Chapter 7.

16. Myerson, Roger B. Learning from Schelling’s Strategy of Conflict, Journal of Economic Literature 2009, 47:4, 1109–1125, http:www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jel.47.4.1109, September 24, 2012.

17. Ibid, Myerson.

18. It may also be labeled "information warfare," although that distinction is incomplete.

19. Buennemeyer, Timothy K. A Strategic Approach to Network Defense: Framing the Cloud. Parameters, Vol. XLI, No. 3, Autumn 2011. U.S. Army War College, 1222 Forbes Ave, Carlisle, PA 17013-5238, p.47.

20. Lin, Patrick; Allhoff, Fritz, & Rowe, Neil. Is It Possible to Wage a Just Cyberwar? The Atlantic, 19 July 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/is-it-possible-to-wage-a-just-cyberwar/258106/?. Jun 5 2012.

21. http://www.geek.com/articles/mobile/chinese-ios-developer-accused-of-stealing-torchlight-assets-booted-from-app-store-20120720/

22. http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2012/06/confirmed-us-israel-created-stuxnet-lost-control-of-it/

23. A rootkit is malware code designed to hide from normal means of detection and to allow stealthy access to a computing system.

24. “Flame is the Swiss Army knife of spying tools: It can collect data entered into forms, collect passwords, record audio and capture screenshots. It may have played a reconnaissance role to scout out systems for later infection by Stuxnet, which disrupted industrial control systems made by Siemens and used by Iran for refining uranium. According to the research, Flame's command-and-control system was designed to look more like a content management system (CMS).”  Computer World, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9231380/_39_Flame_39_malware_may_have_siblings_study_finds

25. A Trojan Horse is malware masquerading as a legitimate file in the computational software but is designed to allow another to have unauthorized access to the computer.

26.Rowe, Neil C. Ethics of Cyberwar Attacks, http://faculty.nps.edu/ncrowe/attackethics.htm, 19 July 2012

27. Fryer-Briggs, Zachary. Despite Changes, US Cyber Bill Fails, Defense News, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA., August 6, 2012, p. 30.

28. Schabas, William A. Enforcing International Humanitarian Law: Catching the Accomplices, RICR June 2001 Vol. 83 No 842, www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/439-460_schabas.pdf, Sept. 21, 2012.

29. No Legal Vacuum In Cyber Space, August 16, 2011 Interview with Cordula Droege, ICRC Legal Adviser. http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/interview/2011/cyber-warfare-interview-2011-08-16.htm, Sept. 20, 2012.

30. Ibid, Clausewitz.

31. Biron, Lauren. DARPA Tests Gigapixel Cameras. C4ISR Journal, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA., August 2012, p.8.

32. Donley, Michael and Maybury, Mark. Air Force Cyber Vision 2025. Armed Forces Journal, October 2012. Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA., p.22.

33. Garretson, Peter. The Case for Optionally Manned Aircraft, Armed Forces Journal, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA. Sept. 2012, pp.11ff.

34. Rustici, Ross M. Cyberweapons: Leveling the International Playing Field. Parameters, Vol. XLI, No. 3, Autumn 2011. U.S. Army War College, 1222 Forbes Ave, Carlisle, PA 17013-5238, p.38.

35. Ibid, Liaropoulos.

36. Sanborn, James K. University Demonstrates Drone Spoofing, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA. Sept. 2012, p10.

37. Commentary. 6 Ways to Improve UAVs. C4ISR Journal, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA., March 2012, p.30.

38. Also consider second order effects: “What may seem a precisely targeted disabling of a software module on a military computer may have profound consequences on civilian computers that happen, unknown to attackers, to use that same module.” Ibid, Rowe.

39. Ibid, Liaropoulos.

40. Fryer-Biggs, Zachary. CYBERCOM Moving Toward Command Elevation, Defense News, August 20, 2012.

41. Fryer-Biggs, Zachary. U.S. Moves Toward Normalization of Cyber Warfare. Defense News, Gannett Government Media, Springfield, VA., October 1, 2012, p.15.

42. King, Rachel. US Defense Chief Warns of Digital 9/11. The Wall Street Journal, October 11, 2012. (accessed October 26, 2012), http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2012/10/11/u-s-defense-chief-warns-of-digital-911/?KEYWORDS=panetta+affirms+cyber+war+policy, internet..

43. Czege, BG Huba Wass de. "War With Implacable Foes: What All Statesmen and Generals Need to Know." Army 56, no. 5 (2006): 9-14.

44. It is embodied in the Charter of the United Nations and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Common Article 1, paragraph 1 of these Covenants provides that: "All peoples have the rights of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development." International Workgroup for Indigenous Affairs. (accessed 2009) available in http://www.iwgia.org/sw228.asp; internet.

45. Consequentialist Imperative is concerned with ends and not means, pragmatic actions and not ontology.

46. Ibid, Rowe.

47. Such as the new U.S. cyber policy that the USA would regard certain categories of Cyber Attacks as constituting “a use of force.”

48. The Just nation does not respond out of fear or outrage but out of a moral duty to maintain the peace. Lynn, John A. II. Fear and Outrage as Terrorist’s Goals. Parameters, Vol. XLII, No. 1, Spring 2011. U.S. Army War College, 1222 Forbes Ave, Carlisle, PA 17013-5238, p.51ff.

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Last Updated on Saturday, 01 December 2012 22:23