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Saint Augustine
The Moral Crisis of Just War: Beyond Deontology toward a Professional Military Ethic - Endnotes
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Article Index
The Moral Crisis of Just War: Beyond Deontology toward a Professional Military Ethic
The Crisis of Just War
The Crisis of the Deontological Vision of Just War
Beyond Values and Rules: Character, Virtue and a Professional Military Ethic
Just War, Character and Virtue
Character Amidst the Ruins: Virtue Across the Civilian-Miiltary Divide
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1. Matthew Moten, “The Army Officer’s Professional Ethic – Past, Present, Future,” vii.

2. See Moten, vii.

3. Moten, vii.

4. Moten, vii.

5. Don Snider, Paul Oh, and Kevin Toner, “The Army’s Professional Military Ethic in an Era of Persistent Conflict,” 8-9.

6. Moten, vii, 16.

7. Martin Cook, The Moral Warrior, 55.

8. Moten, 17.

9. MHAT-IV.  Approximately 10 percent of surveyed soldiers and Marines report mistreating noncombatants and damaging property unnecessarily.  Less than half agreed noncombatants were due respect (47% soldiers and 38% Marines), More than a third said torture should be permissible for the sake of saving a fellow soldier or Marine. And less than half would report a team member for unethical behavior.

10.  Moten, viii, 19.

11. Moten, 22.

12. Snider et al, 21.

13. Snider et al, 23.

14. Timothy Challans, Awakening Warrior, 11.

15. It is important to note that this novelty is the result of a trend dating back at least 30 years. See Andrew Bacevich, The New American Militarism: How Americans are Seduced by War.

16. Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade,  Shock and Awe: Achieving Rapid Dominance

17. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (2003).

18. See, for example, Timothy Challans, Awakening Warrior, 147, 151-2.

19. Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars, 251ff.  See also his important discussion of this concept in relation to the war on terrorism in his Arguing About War, 251.

20. This was first uttered with regard to the Bill of Rights by Justice Robert Jackson in 1949. For an invocation of the sentiment in the context of the war on terror, see Jean Bethke Elshtain, Just War Against Terror, 97.

21. See George Weigel, “Moral Clarity in a Time of War,” 26. See also Stephen Carter, The Violence of Peace, 8.

22. Elshtain is an example that immediately comes to mind. See her Just War Against Terror, p. 62f.

23. See, for example, William Lind, et al., “The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation,” 22-6.

24. See Stephen Carter, The Violence of Peace, 62ff.; Gross, Moral Dilemmas of Modern War, 26-53.

25. James Turner Johnson, “Paul Ramsey and the Recovery of the Just War Idea”; Walzer Arguing About War, 3-22.

26. See, for example, James Turner Johnson, Can Modern War Be Just?

27. See Terry Terrif, Aaron Karp and Regina Karp, eds. Global Insurgency and the Future of Armed Conflict: Debating Fourth-Generation Warfare. NY: Routledge, 2008.

28. James Turner Johnson, The Quest for Peace, 75-90.

29. Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue

30. See Daniel M. Bell, Jr. Just War as Christian Discipleship

31. Hackett, “The Military in the Service of the State.”

32. Challans, 11.

33. Snider, 24.

34.  Snider, 3; MacIntyre After Virtue, 25-6, 86.

35.  Brian Imiola and Danny Cazier, “On the Road to Articulating Our Professional Ethic,” 9-14.

36. Jonathan Shay, Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character

37.  Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War

38.  Mark J. Osiel, Obeying Orders.

39. “The Profession of Arms,” 3

40. Moten, as noted previously.

41.  Challans, Awakening Warrior.

42.  Anthony Hartle, Moral Issues in Military Decision Making, 7.

43.  Hartle, 23.

44. I do not mean to suggest that professional soldiers are something less than experts.  Rather, they are more than experts.

45.  Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars, xxxi.

46.  For more on the importance of emotional formation of soldiers, see Michael C. Sevcik, “Moral Intuition and the Professional Military Ethic,” 1-10.

47. Martin Cook emphasizes that the current crisis is a crisis of the post-1648 Peace of Westphalia model of international relations. See The Moral Warrior

48. Hartle, 67.

49. Walzer notes that it is precisely the willingness to bear this risk that indicates a people’s commitment to just war. Arguing About War, 137. Martin Cook discusses the force protection imperative in The Moral Warrior, 121-7.

50. Cook, The Moral Warrior, 117.

51.  Hartle refers to this as the military’s being “partially differentiated.” See Moral Issues, 149-180.

52. US DOD, The Armed Forces Officer, 16-7 recognizes this clash of values as a potential problem.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 10 July 2012 12:32