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Saint Augustine
Jesus and Pacifism - Endnotes
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Article Index
Jesus and Pacifism
Personal Non-retaliation, Not Pacifism
Blessed Are the Peacemakers
Turn the Other Cheek
Live by the Sword, Die by the Sword
Two Kingdoms - The Strong Man
Jesus and the Roman Centurion -- Conclusion
All Pages


1.  Whatever political issues arise from Jesus teachings are second and third order applications of Jesus‘ teachings, and are very open to debate as to the correctness of the interpretation.

2.  Longman III, Tremper & Daniel G. Reid. God Is A Warrior. (Grand Rapids, MI:. Zondervan Publishing House, 1995); p.15.

3. Ibid, p.26-27.

4.  Matthew 22:21. “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar‘s; and to God the things that are God‘s.”

5.  Tarsitano, Louis R. "Waging Peace: War, Christianity & the Divine Order" (Touchstone, October 2002, accessed 02 February 2009); available from; internet.

6.  A Modern Western Liberal is one who values a 21st century understanding of human rights, democratic governance, individual liberty, etc. This is not to be confused with theological liberals who generally hold a non-literal and progressivist interpretation of scripture.

7.  Charles, Daryl J. Between Pacifism And Jihad: Just War And Christian Tradition. (Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, , 2005); p.94.

8.  1 Chronicles 11:26 ff.

9.  Craigie, Peter C. The Problem of War in the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: MI Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1983); p.35.

10.  Ibid, p.16.

11.  Ibid, p.35-36.

12.  Most frequently translated “Lord of Hosts” which obscures the meaning in modern English.

13.  Ibid, Craigie, Peter, p.35-36

14.  Ibid, Longman et al, p.34.

15.  Ibid, Craigie, p.41.

16.  Kaiser, Walter C. Jr. The Messiah In the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids MI: Zondervan, , 1995); p.181.

17.  Warriors are often called upon to sacrificially lay down their lives, but this is never done without a fight. That Christ should meekly lay down his life as the atoning sacrifice brings in logic and purpose that is not human but divine.

18.  Ibid, Craigie, p.39.

19.  Strong, James: The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible : electronic ed. (Ontario : Woodside Bible Fellowship., 1996); S. G1515

20.  An early Greek translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew into biblical Greek by a group of 70 scholars.  Thus the Septuagint is abbreviated LXX.

21.  Harris, R. Laird, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Bruce K. Waltke. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago, Moody Press, 1980); 2401a.

22.  Ibid, Harris et al, 2401a.

23.  Calvin, John. Calvin‘s Commentaries, vol. 1. A Harmony of the Gospels: Matthew Mark And Luke, A. W. Morrison, translator, David W. Torrance & Thomas F. Torrance, editors. (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub Co., 1972); p. 172.

24.  Ibid, Calvin, p. 172.

25.  Boyd, Gregory A. God At War: The Bible & Spiritual Conflict (Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997); p.183.

26.  Ibid, Strong, G436

27.  Deut. 32:35; Ps. 94:1; also cited in Rom. 12:9 and Heb. 10:30.

28. Ibid, Charles, p.72-73.

29. Ibid,. p.72-73.

30. Speaking in general, noting that there are a wide variety of pacifist positions as noted by John Howard Yoder in his book, Nevertheless: Varieties of Religious Pacifism.

31. Hauerwas, Stanley. "The Peaceable Kingdom," The Hauerwas Reader. John Berkman & Michael Cartwright, edits. (Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2005); p.121.

32. Ibid, p.121.

33. Hauerwas, Stanley. Against The Nations: War and Survival in a Liberal Society. (Notre Dame IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1992); p.112.

34. Hauerwas, Stanley. Letter to the Editors (First Things, February 202, no. 120).

35. Hauerwas, Stanley. "Sectarian Temptation," The Hauerwas Reader. John Berkman & Michael Cartwright, edits. (Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2005); p.105.

36. Ibid, Hauerwas, "Sectarian Temptation," p.105.

37. Ude, Johannes. Cited by John Howard Yoder in Nevertheless, (Scottdale PA: Herald Press, 1992); p.33.

38. Aquinas, St. Thomas. The Summa Theologica. (accessed July 6, 2007); available from [Ep. ad Marcel. cxxxviii]

39. Ibid, Ep. ad Marcel. cxxxviii.

40.  bid, Ep. ad Bonif. clxxxix.

41.  Lewis, C.S. The Weight of Glory: (Why I Am Not A Pacifist), (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1980);. p.85-86.

42. Ibid, p.87.

43.  Ibid, p. 87.

44.  Johnson, James Turner. The Holy War Idea In Western And Islamic Traditions (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997);

45.  Ibid, p. 38.

46.  Ibid, p. 37.

47.  Von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament Theology, vol. II., (New York: Harper & Row, Pub., 1965); p. 285.

48.  Zec. 4:6, NASB.

49.  Of the eleven remaining disciples, two already carried swords – Luke 22:38.

50.  Ibid, Longman et al., p.129.

51.  Lutherans understand this concept under Luther‘s teachings on ‘Two Kingdoms,’ and Catholics under the rubric of ‘Two Swords.’

52.  Longman III, Tremper & Daniel G. Reid. God Is A Warrior. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI. 1995, p.129.

53.  Ibid, Calvin, p.144.

54.  Ibid, Boyd, p.181.

55.  Luther, Martin. "Whether Soldiers, Too, Can Be Saved," Luther's Works, vol. 46, The Christian In Society, Robert C. Scultz, editor. (Philadelphia PA: Fortress Press, 1967); p.135.

56.  Ibid, Charles, p.97.

57.  Bock, Darrell L. The NIV Application Commentary: Luke, (Grand Rapids MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1996); p.512.

58.  Ibid, Bock, p.512.

59.  Ibid, Luther, p.95.

60.  Scalia, Antonin. "God‘s Justice And Ours" (First Things, May 2002, vol. 123) p.17-21.

61.  Ibid, p. 17-21.

62.  Ibid, p. 17-21.

63.  Mt 22:21, NASB.

64.  Ibid, Longman et al, p.111.

65.  Mt 12:28, NASB.

66.  Ibid, Calvin, p.41.

67.  Ibid, Boyd, p.181-2.

68. Charles, J. Daryl. "Between Pacifism and Jihad" (Touchstone, Nov. 2003, accessed 02 February 2009) available from; internet.

69.  Ibid, Charles, p.93.


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Last Updated on Monday, 25 March 2013 18:17