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1. Umma – all Muslim people of faith regardless of nationality.
2. It is currently fashionable in many academic and scientific realms to make an assumption that faith is irrational or non-rational. This assumption flies in the face of many millennia of philosophical consideration and study.
3. Truth – capitalized to convey the idea of ontological reality as opposed a temporary fact.
4. As well as in other religiously driven contexts.
5. As opposed to Western Cartesian and mechanistic assumptions as a basis of epistemology which assumes that religious discourse is non-rational and scientifically unverifiable..
6. Czege, BG Huba Wass de. "War With Implacable Foes: What All Statesmen and Generals Need to Know." (Army, vol. 56, no. 5, 2006): p. 9.
7. Ibid., Clausewitz, p. 119.
8. Ibid., Clausewitz, p.101.
9. Liang, Qiao & Wang Xiangsui. Unrestricted Warfare. (Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts Publishing House, 1999).
10. Ibid., Czege, Traditional and Irregular War. p 14.
11. Ibid., Clausewitz, p. 367 ff.
12. Many of the world’s religions have considered teachings on just conduct during warfare. A pertinent example is Majid Khadduri’s ‘War and Peace in the Law of Islam.’
13. While the USA is officially a secular state, its culture and heritage are profoundly influenced by the Christian faith, and its majority population professes some form of Christianity.
14. Tarsitano, Louis R. "Waging Peace: War, Christianity & the Divine Order" (Touchstone October, 2002, http://touchstonemag.com/archives/article.php?id=15-08-031-f, (accessed February 06, 2008).
15. Ibid., Tarsitano.
16. "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them." Genesis 1:27.
17. "He has also set eternity in the hearts of men." Ecclesiastes 3:11
18. American Strategic Leaders are those who are at the pinnacle of our national cultural, diplomatic, military and political, structures.
19. Popularly in our culture, Americans refer to Judeo-Christian traditions. However, for the purposes of this article, American religious heritage is identified as Muslims generally perceive it.
20. The USA is conceived as a Novus Ordo Seclorum (Latin for "New Order of the Ages," from the Great Seal) and has enshrined the separation of church and state in the 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
21. Arguably, even the USA is fundamentally driven by a religious world view. For example: American exceptionalism is a cultural conception Americans hold that the United States is a unique nation specifically destined to lead the world community, rescue the oppressed and usher in an enduring world peace. It is a quasi-religious-secular devotion to the American way of life, originating from the Christian faith and routinely expressed as a secular belief.
22. For instance: the U.S. military routinely applies Christian Just War principles (codified in US and international law), neatly sanitized of religious substance, to determine if a particular action is in keeping with the accepted morality of the nation and western world.
23. Even radically atheistic nations like the former Soviet Union were never able to eradicate religious faith from their populations.
24. Do not confuse the assertion - It’s all about religion - with individual denominational practice of faith, personal piety or religiosity. This is about predominant worldview and fundamental communication.
25. This term is used throughout the paper with a universal meaning, to include all religious belief.
26. A low level of religious understanding, when employed in negotiations, may rightly be interpreted as a disingenuous attempt to manipulate.
27. Umma - all Muslim people of faith regardless of nationality.
28. “…at the core of the project initiated by Descartes and Hobbes is a faith or self-confidence that an enlightened humanity can discover a ground for an apodictic or at least an effectual truth, and that this truth will provide the foundation for an unprecedented human flourishing.” Gillespie, Michael Allen. The Theological Origins of Modernity (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2008) p.257.
29. A fundamental concept from JP 3-24 – Counterinsurgency Operations.
30. The Bill of Rights. (Charters of Freedom, accessed 2 August 2009); available from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html; internet.
31. CoG is not a military / political Holy Grail, or silver bullet - the discovery of which guarantees ultimate victory. The CoG is the locus of an opponent’s strength - without which the opponent loses the power and will to continue resistance. The CoG ought to be the focus of our attention: it is where the location of the Main Effort ought to be and which will require creative responses for success.
32. Strange; Joseph L & Richard Iron. "Center of Gravity: What Clausewitz Really Meant" (Joint Force Quarterly: 2004; 35) p.7-8.
33. Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War. London: Penguin Classics, 1982 (1832), p.118-119.
34. Echevarria, Antulio J II. "Center of Gravity: Recommendations for Joint Doctrine" (Joint Force Quarterly 2004; 35) p.17. (Emphasis mine)
35. The Two Holy Places are Medina and Mecca, which are located in Saudi Arabia.
36. Benjamin, Daniel & Steven Simon. The Age Of Sacred Terror (New York: Random House, 2002); p140-141.
37. Khadduri, Majid. War and Peace in the Law of Islam (New York: AMS Press, 1979), p. 94.
38. Johnson, Douglas V. and John R. Martin, “Terrorism Viewed Historically,” Defeating Terrorism: Strategic Issue Analyses. John R. Martin, ed. (Strategic Studies Institute, January 2002, 1-5); p.3.
39. Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Just War Against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World (New York: Basic Books, 2003); p.133.
40. DeRosa, CPT John. "Letters" section (Armed Forces Journal, July 2007).
41. Eleven players are normally fielded, seven players is the minimum a team must field or otherwise forfeit the game. Drinking the ice-cold sodas on a blistering hot day causes painful intestinal cramping that will temporarily disable even the most hardy person.
42. This personal story is included to help the American reader grasp the essential emotional and moral issues that the Islamic world so readily understands.
43. Consanguinity – a close relationship or affinity with another person, group, or tribe.
44. Friedman, Thomas L. From Beirut to Lebanon (New York: Anchor Books, NY 1989); p.89.
45. Muslims cite their scripture: “you are the best of all nations” Quran 3:110 [also repeatedly cited by Bin Laden] which Muslims believe is absolutely true but incongruent with their present circumstances.
46. Lewis, Bernard. “The Roots of Muslim Rage” (The Atlantic, September 1990, accessed February 03, 2009) available from http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/199009/muslim-rage; internet.
47. Ibid., Lewis.
48. Ibid., Lewis.
49. “Joint Operating Environment 2008: Challenges and Implications for the Future Joint Force.” (United States Joint Forces Command, November 2008); p.35.
50. “O mankind, verily We have created you from a single [Pair] of a male and a female, and have made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other. Verily the most honored of you in the sight of God is the most righteous.” (Quran 49:13). We note that while this is the Islamic ideal, a classless society is not effectively practiced anywhere in Muslim lands.
51. Garfinkle, Adam. “How We Misunderstand Terrorism.” (E-Note from FPRI. 11 Sep 2008. Foreign Policy Research Institute, accessed 08 March 2009).
52. In Iran and the Taliban controlled regions of Pakistan-Afghanistan precisely the opposite is true. There the state is subordinate to religious leaders. In any case, there is no separation of state and religion.
53. al-Zawahri as cited in Kiras, James D. “Irregular Warfare: Terrorism and Insurgency” Strategy in the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Strategic Studies. Eds. John Baylis, James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen, Colin S. Gray (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); p.164.
54. This is the title given to the first four successors to Mohammad.
55. Ibn Taymiyya refused to acknowledge any primacy of the state over Islam.
56. Sharia is the established legal system of Muslim nations for more than 1,300 years.
57. Islamic Law.
58. Professor Majid Khadduri (1909 -- 2007) Iraqi, founder of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies Middle East Studies program.
59. Ibid, Khadduri, p. 23. Khadduri omits mention that the Muslim Law of Nations (Siyar) was not articulated for some 200 years after Muhammad, although it was founded upon Muhammad’s example and the Quran.
60. Khadduri, Majid. War and Peace in the Law of Islam (New York: AMS Press, 1979), p, 16.
61. Ibid., p, 14.
62. Ibid., p, 24.
63. Ibid., p, 25.
64. Ibid., p, 26-7.
65. Berman, Paul. “The philosopher of Islamic Terror” in the New York Times, March 23, 2003.
66. Ibid., Berman.
67. Ibid., Berman.
68. Qutb, Sayyid. Social Justice in Islam (Oneonta, NY: Islamic Publications International, 2000); p.19.
69. Arman, Abukar. “The Making of Another Iraq.” (FPIF Commentary. 3 January 2007).
70. Ibid., Benjamin & Simon, p.29-30.
71. Ibid., Elshtain, p.11.
72. As in the case of interrogation methods used on Islamists. This is the center of a very lively national debate in which each of the many viewpoints cites outmoded law from the perspective of their own legal opinion. Congress has yet to do the hard work of enacting legislation that will set clear boundaries and provide adequate protection for interrogators. See: Wittes, Benjamin. Law and the Long War: The Future of Justice in the Age of Terror. New York: The Penguin Press, 2008.
73. Proper care must be made not to blame all of the strife upon essentially religious conflict because a large percentage of the European ‘Wars of Religion’ were entirely motivated by political, tribal, and other considerations. During that turbulent period, it was as common for conflict to occur between coreligionists – i.e., Catholic against Catholic each with Protestant allies!
74. A very gifted USAR Baptist scholar-soldier who died suddenly in December 2008.
75. President of the Institute for Global Engagement, quoted by permission.
76. For example: “Salali-El-Din war with King Richard, the Lion-Hearted, the latter fell sick. Although those two kings were at war, they had respect and admiration of each other. Saladin sent Ibn- Maimon [Maimonides] to Richard to treat him”. Abouleish, Ezzat. Contributions Of Islam To Medicine; available from http://www.islam-usa.com/im3.html; accessed 25 Dec. 2008.
77. While being an atheist is an American right, it is seen as terrible affront to Allah by Muslims.
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