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1 . The essay is reproduced in Jerome Kohn, ed., Hannah Arendt: Essays in Understanding, 1930-1954 (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994), 133-35.
2. This post-WWI development has been correctly observed by Nicholas Rengger and Renée Jeffery in “Moral Evil and International Relations,” SAIS Review 25, no. 1 (2005): 3-4.
3. Ludu Sein Win, veteran Burmese (and Rangoon-based) journalist, cited in Irrawaddy (April 2008), p. 5.
4. Luke 10:25-37.
5. Rom. 2:14-15.
6. J. Budziszewski, What We Can’t Not Know: A Guide (Dallas: Spence, 2003 [rev. Ignatius, 2011]).
7. Jean Bethke Elshtain, “Just War and Humanitarian Intervention,” Ideas 8, no. 2 (2001): 18-21; see also Augustine and the Limits of Power (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996); “What Is a Just War?” (chap. 3) in Just War Against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World (New York, NY: Basic books, 2003); and “International Justice,” 63-70.
8. Elshtain, “Just War and Humanitarian Intervention,” 18-19.
9. On the pernicious effects of the false dichotomy between political power and ethics, the remarks of John Courtney Murray remain timeless: “It is the function of morality to command the use of power, to forbid it, to limit it, or, more in general, to define the ends for which power may or must be used and to judge the circumstances of its use. But moral principles cannot effectively impart this sense of direction to power until they have first, as it were, passed through the order of politics; that is, until they have first become incarnate in public policy. It is public policy in all its varied concretions that must be ‘moralized’…” (We Hold These Truths… 273).
10. Ana Palacio, “The Rebirth of a Nation,” The Wall Street Journal (October 27, 2003): A22.
11. Humanitarian Challenges and Intervention, 2nd ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2000), 19
12. As veteran human rights watcher Nina Shea has recently reported, ever since Omar al-Bashir, Sudan’s president, took power in the late 1980s, he has waged a ferocious war against his own people – initially the Nuba, then South Sudan, then Dafur in the west,, then the Beja people in the east, and now again the Nuba. Khartoum has made it literally impossible for foreign aid groups to access these people groups, where aerial bombings, forced displacement, mass killings of innocent lives, abductions, summary executions, attacks on churches, and systematic destruction of dwellings have been waged for decades. See Nina Shea, “Serial Genocide in Sudan.” National Review Online (August 10, 2011), accessible at http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/274131/serial-genocide-sudan-nina-shea.
13. Hereon see Hadley Arkes, First Things: An Inquiry into the First Principles of Morals and Justice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), esp. chapters 12 (“The Morality of Intervention”) and 13 (“The Obligation to Rescue and Supererogatory Acts”).
14. The transcript of this address appeared in the Washington Post, February 2, 1997, C4.
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